Teacher Education and Training for Professional Development

Teacher Education and Training for Professional Development

Teacher Education and Training for Professional Development

SoalSMA - Teacher Education and Training for Professional Development - Education is the primary capital for creating superior human resources. The main world of education is the school. The school is an alternative institution for educational services. The school as an institution certainly has a vision, mission, goals and functions. To carry out the mission, achieve the vision, achieve the goals, and carry out its functions, schools need professional staff, organizational work procedures, and resources that support both financial and non-financial.

The school as a system contains components that are interrelated and contribute to the achievement of goals. These components are students, curricula, learning materials, teachers, principals and other education personnel, environment and facilities, learning processes and outcomes or outcomes. All these components must evolve in accordance with the requirements of the times and the environmental changes that occur around them. To develop, of course there must be a process of change. This evolution must start from the things that make the organization not function as expected.

Teachers (teachers) in the teaching and learning process play a major role in determining the quality of learning. Teachers are expected to be able to show students how to acquire knowledge (cognitive), attitudes and values (affective), and skills (motor). In other words, the primary task and role of the educator lies in the learning aspect. Learning is a tool for achieving educational goals. So, in summary, it can be said that the quality of education is strongly influenced by the quality of teachers.

In the National Education System Law No. 20 of 2003, Article 29 Paragraph 2 states that teachers are professionals whose job it is to plan and implement the learning process, evaluate learning outcomes, and conduct guidance and training. In the context of the national education system, the educator must have the ability to achieve the national education goals.

In order to achieve these national education goals, a teacher is considered capable of becoming a teacher if he has the ability, which is made clear according to the National Education System Law that teachers (teachers) in order to carry out their duties properly and professionally, are required to have four competencies, namely competence educational competence, professional competence, personal competence, and social competence. (National Education System Act, 2003: & p. 19: 2005).

In this case, the teacher plays such a complex and dynamic role that such work can only be done by a person who honestly, consciously and truly chooses the function of the teacher with all the consequences. In an effort to anticipate the increasingly broad role of the teacher, teachers should have teaching competence and creativity in creating a more effective and conducive learning climate. Teachers as educators must therefore have professional skills as stated in PP Number 19 of 2005 on National Education Standards Article 28 Paragraph (3), which are obtained through quality education, training and self-development; Willingness and ability to design, implement and assess learning; As well as other aptitudes and abilities related to their duties and responsibilities.

In the context of teaching in schools, efforts to improve the quality of teaching cannot be separated from the various factors affecting teaching and learning activities in the classroom. At the micro level, quality improvement is closely related to the professional behavior of teachers in the teaching process. This is a reflection of the teacher's obligation to control the implementation of their professional values, attitudes, and behaviour. Based on the education and training program in improving the quality of education, the professionalism of teachers is increased in improving the teaching process in schools.

Based on the description above, the authors are interested in discussing teacher education and training for professional development. Case study in SMK Negeri 4 Pandeglang.

Symptoms (symptoms / identification of the problem)

Teachers in SMKN 4 Pandeglang receive education and training to improve competence as teachers, mentors and educators but are not given follow-up that can help them apply the results of the training that has been implemented.

The effectiveness of the education and training that has been implemented so far is immeasurable because there is no guarantee of quality, and that the results of the training can actually be implemented.

Education and training are finally seen as a mere formal activity, since they do not have much influence on the teacher's performance.

However, training activities are a separate budgetary burden that must be borne by the school. Training aims for effectiveness and efficiency, instead it turns into an activity which is just a waste.

The teacher training that has been implemented so far has often had so many participants that there is no opportunity for in-depth discussions, problem-solving, simulation and practice.

Training material is often very dense in a relatively short period of time. Training often starts early in the morning until late at night, so there are no opportunities to review materials.

Trainers often lack the experience to match the needs of the trainees. They are coaches who only take into account the factors of seniority and location, not from the point of view of their abilities.

The facilities to implement the training outcomes are often not available and teachers do not receive professional assistance when implementing the training outcomes.

the main problem

There is a phenomenon that has occurred in Pandeglang 4 Public Vocational School so far, which is that teachers receive education and training to improve efficiency but are not followed up with a follow-up that can help them apply the results of the training that has been implemented so far, so that the effectiveness of the education and training that has been implemented becomes incommensurable because There is no quality guarantee that the results of the training can actually be implemented and in the end the training is only seen as a formality.

theoretical framework (theoretical framework)

According to Notoatmodjo (2003), education and training are efforts to develop human resources, especially to develop intellectual capacities and human personality. Education in the organization is the process of developing capabilities in the direction desired by the concerned organisation. While training is part of the educational process, and its purpose is to improve the special abilities or skills of a person or a group of people. The use of education and training terms in an organization is usually incorporated into training.

Education and training is an effort to develop human resources to improve the technical, theoretical, conceptual, and ethical capabilities of employees according to the needs of the job or position (Hasibuan, 2002). Employee development programs must be carefully structured and guided by the skills the company needs now and in the future. Employee development is increasingly important due to the demands of the job or position, as a result of technological advances and the increasingly intense competition among similar companies.

Training according to Hardjana (2001) aims to help employees:

  • Learn and acquire new skills.
  • Maintaining and improving skills that have been mastered.
  • Encourage employees to want to learn and develop.
  • Work place practice on things learned and acquired in training.
  • Employee personal development.
  • Develop institutional effectiveness.
  • Motivate employees to continue learning and development.

The benefits of training are divided into two aspects, which are in terms of individuals and organizations (Atmodiwiro, 2002).

From an individual point of view:

  • Add insight and knowledge about organizational development both internally and externally.
  • Add insights into environmental developments that significantly affect organizational life.
  • Increase knowledge in the field of work.
  • Add skills to better carry out their duties.
  • Improve communication skills among your fellow employees.
  • Improve the ability to deal with emotions.
  • Enhance the leader experience.

For organizations:

  • Preparing employees for higher positions than the current job.
  • Adapting to changes in the environment.
  • It is the basis for further development.
  • Increase production capacity.
  • Improve organizational capacity to create collaboration and networking.

The benefits of training according to Simamora (1995) are:

  • Increase the quality and quantity of productivity.
  • Reduce the learning time required for employees to achieve acceptable performance standards.
  • Create a more profitable, loyal and cooperative attitude.
  • Meet human resource planning requirements.
  • Reducing the number and cost of work accidents.

Assist employees in personal improvement and development.

According to Arep and Tanjung (2002), a Training Needs Analysis (AKP) is conducted before conducting employee training. This PPA is made so that it does not happen that employees who participate in training do not need training. An employee who does not need training will not be motivated to participate in training, especially because of coercion. This will cause training to be a wasted activity, both for the employee and for the organizers because the objective is not achieved.

To anticipate this, in order to increase the professionalism of the teacher through education and training, various things are needed in designing (designing and building) education and training programs so that they can become guidelines or references in the implementation of training and can prepare materials, methods, curricula and stages - the stages of the implemented activities depend In its implementation on the aspects and elements that the training focuses on.

Meanwhile, Sondang Siagian (1997:185-203) describes seven steps in coaching activities, namely: (1) identification of needs; (2) goal setting; program selection; (iii) identify the contents of the Program; (iv) defining the principles of learning; (v) implement the programme; (6) identification of benefits; (7) Evaluation of program implementation.


Education and training is an activity designed to help increase employee performance in acquiring the knowledge, skills, and improving attitudes and behavior needed to properly carry out work and which are now their responsibility so that organizational goals can be achieved. In other words, it can be said that education and training focus on increasing, improving, and mastering the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behavior of the employee, in this case, teachers as educators in improving professional competence as a teacher.

In order to increase the teacher's professionalism through education and training, various things are needed in the design (design) of education and training programs so that they can become guidelines or references in the implementation of training and can prepare materials, methods, approaches as well as stages of activities carried out in its implementation on the basis of aspects and elements which is the focus of training.

The approach taken in implementing education and training is a systems approach with the assumption that education and training requires a comprehensive (holistic) analysis of all training sub-systems in order to obtain an objective analysis.

The training conducted to increase the professionalism of the teacher must be conducted continuously and systematically so that the knowledge, skills and professional attitudes of the teachers can be measured for their success and analyzed for the obstacles that may occur in the implementation of the training results. This is a solution to the phenomenon that has occurred so far that the success of education and training cannot be measured and is just a formality.

One of the main activities of organizing training is to design the training programme. To design and build a training programme, we must have an insight in the form of knowledge and skills about education and training, and this is linked to duties and responsibilities as organizers of education and training. In order for the training to be successful in the sense that the training program meets the training needs on the one hand, and on the other hand, the work unit from which the training participants come from improves their performance, because the performance of the participants rises. So training design is an initial activity carried out to prepare for training implementation which is very important. Besides having the goal of producing high-quality educational and training programs that match the needs of the participants, the organization can also define training strategies. The first thing an education and training designer does is explore existing learning paradigms. This activity is very useful in producing high quality and realistic programmes. The benefits of using templates are:
  • Describe the relationship between expected aspects of human behavior and their interactions.
  • Incorporating what we know through research and curation.
  • Simplify complex humanitarian operations.

Monitoring guide.

There are several stages in the implementation of education and training in order to produce a good educational and training program, starting with planning, implementation and evaluation of training.

Training planning

Training design is a planning process that describes a systematic sequence of activities related to a programme, or a series of activities for the training components that make up a unified part of the programme. Subagio Atmodiwiryo (2002:56) divides three important elements in every training design that must be considered in efforts to increase training activities for each individual, namely:

  • Purpose (what do you want to achieve)
  • method (how to achieve the goal)
  • Format (Under what circumstances you specify the layout you want.

From these three issues, several basic questions emerge when designing a training programme, namely:

  • Can the design achieve the goals/objectives of the activity?
  • What are the ideas presented and what is expected of the participants in the training?
  • What is the level of knowledge and skills required for the training participants?
  • What are the expected competencies of the participants in the training?
  • How is the training curriculum?
  • What are the materials needed to support the expected competence?
  • Who transmits the material in the training program?
  • How long will it take?
  • How much is the required cost?
  • Is the design suitable for the participants in the training?
  • Determine the implementation of the training.
  • How is the unit management of the education and training program?
The evaluation format used.

To be able to realize some of the above questions, the initial steps taken in training design are: Conducting an education and training needs analysis before preparing a training plan.

Analysis of training needs

A needs analysis is a systematic investigation of job descriptions to describe gaps, determine why they are there and determine if training is a potential solution. Or in other words, training needs analysis is the identification of the difference between real conditions (what is) and expected conditions (what ought to be) in a person's performance in an enterprise or organisation. In other words, this analysis can be done if there is a lack of knowledge, skills and attitudes. For education and training analysis needs in improving teacher professionalism, some information is needed in the form of:

An accurate job description of the teacher's competencies

Defining performance requirements in terms of the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the teacher possesses.

The performance of the teacher's current work.

The purpose of a training needs analysis

Training needs analysis is the cornerstone of training, because it prepares information with a suitable justification for learning development or not. A training needs analysis is conducted for the following objectives:

  • Describe the actual (exact) nature of the job description.
  • Determine the reasons for describing the work
  • I recommend a suitable solution\
  • Describes the community of potential training participants
Our main objective in conducting a training needs analysis is to determine the true nature of the problem, the causes and what is being done to overcome the problem.

Training needs analysis process

A training needs analysis can be carried out through the following steps:

  • Identify and describe gaps in the implementation of the teacher's learning.
  • Identify the causes of learning gaps.
  • Identify gaps in the implementation of learning based on the teacher's lack of knowledge and skills.
  • Determine whether coaching is the most appropriate solution for teachers in implementing learning.
  • Recommendations to find solutions to the gaps that occur.
  • Describe the role or perform the tasks.
Focus on training needs analysis

The training needs analysis should focus on all work environments and not only on specific functions or functions that are specifically associated with gaps in the implementation of the teacher's work/tasks in learning or in other words we do not assume that training is the right intervention in overcoming gaps in teacher performance. The focus of the analysis on teacher training and education needs is teacher competency, that is, teacher performance analysis that includes: classroom program, learning curriculum analysis, learning scenario analysis, and teacher capacity and competency analysis through proficiency tests and computers. This relates to the three pillars of education: knowledge, skills and attitudes.

In addition to this, emphasis is also placed on the needs analysis on the scope of work including many factors that can affect the performance of the teacher such as: physical environment, feedback system, motivating/motivating factors, functional/organizational design, skill level and knowledge among implementers / staff or teachers. Each of these factors can create or contribute to business performance gaps. Of all the factors present, only the fifth factor is most closely related to training needs analysis.

The first stage in a training needs analysis is to identify exactly what the gap is. This can be done by performing an investigation on two data sources, namely:

Resources that provide evidence of the nature of the gap. When testing the actual nature of the problem, we must make sure that the information is correct and this can be obtained from data sources that include: real work outputs, i.e. learning outcomes, customer complaints (students, community, parents of students), notes about new employees, teacher attendance notes , work safety records, and other quantitative and descriptive observations on the implementation of teacher performance.

Sources of subject data that provide understanding, including interviews, questionnaires, and critical incidents: supervisors and lead teachers regarding skills and competencies, people who suggest training, users of skill products, administrators who define work methods, field experts, administrators who specify work methods, measurement and determinants of work outcomes, and designer of job titles.

There are many data collection techniques that can be implemented in training needs analysis such as: personal interviews, telephone surveys, surveys through printed materials, document review, direct review of work outputs, and direct review of work implementation.

Training implementation

A design model for the implementation of education and training for the development of teacher professionalism can be made using models that have been applied to leading schools such as Effective School Management (MSE) for principals and Effective Learning Models (MPE) for teachers. This training design consists of three (3) phases of activity, namely:


It is conducted in the form of training for the participants to introduce, introduce and give birth to the concepts to be trained to the participants:

  • A new paradigm for the learning paradigm
  • Characteristics and components of the learning model
  • Teamwork materials in the form of non-subjective content units
  • Teamwork materials for designing learning models
Implementation assistance

This stage takes place after the activities of the workshop to follow up the implementation of the learning model in schools. This assistance is implemented by a team of mentoring organizers to help schools/teachers implement the training model indicators presented in the workshop by preparing a number of things such as:

  • Action plan to implement the learning model produced by each school/teacher in the workshop phase.
  • Facilitators visit schools/teachers to discuss and consult with program implementation
  • Facilitators are equipped with learning model guidelines and program implementation monitoring tools
evaluation and reflection

It is conducted to determine the implementation of the components and indicators of the education and training model after the implementation of the directive within a predetermined period of time.

It consists of a set of records or observations for each school/teacher and the accompanying team regarding the results of implementation in the field in the form of a final report for each school/teacher. (good practice)

The evaluation includes an analysis of the barriers to implementation of the model education and training programme.

Training evaluation

To find out the responses of the participants to the workshop-help-reflection series of activities, the evaluation was carried out in three phases of the activity:

pre-training stage; To know the reactions of the participants to the material to be taught, to know the level of the participants in the training and the technical capabilities of the material to be provided and as preliminary information for the widyaswara.

stage during training; To learn participants' reactions to parts/the whole training program and to take certain actions required during and after the training in an effort to improve future programmes.

stage after training; To find out the implementation of the training results by the participants in the work unit and the problems that arise when carrying out their duties, and to find out the extent of the commitment of the training program to the needs of the work unit, and to know the extent of the leadership's commitment to job opportunities. for the participants to put the results into practice.

Training is evaluated to determine the extent to which objectives are achieved and to determine the impact of training on the efficiency and effectiveness of the performance of the training participants. The benefit of training evaluation is to obtain information about the quality and quantity of the implementation of the training program, to know the suitability of the implementation of the education and training program to the needs of the concerned institution, and to open possibilities for improving and adapting the education and training program. with changes.

Education and training evaluation objectives include: participants, program users, organizational personnel, facilities and infrastructure, costs, and customer and community involvement. In order to clarify the aspects that will be assessed for each training objective, the following will be discussed.

Training participants

Academic aspects: understanding of the material, oral communication, theoretical analysis, and written communication.

Aspects of attitude and behaviour: discipline, cooperation, leadership and initiative


Aspects of material mastery, presentation methodologies, ability to present material, timing, use of methods, attitudes, behavior, how to answer questions, use of language, distribution of learning motivation, achievement of learning objectives, affective strength, how to dress, and cooperation among widyasiwara.


Aspects of the program include: training objectives, appropriateness of training programs, relevance of training programs and tasks, benefits of training materials for carrying out tasks, benefits of training for participants and organizations, training implementation mechanisms, and the relationship between participants and training implementation.

Service aspects include: commission services, accommodation services, consumption services and health services

solution alternative

So far, the implementation of education and training in Pandeglang 4 Public Vocational School is not continuous and is only implemented at the place of training, not accompanied by a follow-up on how to apply the skills acquired in an effort to make use of these abilities in a professional way.

The school development team monitors the results or the success rate of the activities of the training program implemented after the workshop (post-training) and prepares a control sheet containing the components and indicators of the model designed in the training and submits it to the accompanying team for evaluation. School/teacher performance after implementing the training program model. This is done to obtain information based on the facilities' observations on the activities and actions of the training participants, whether they can develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in the training based on the components and indicators of the developed training program model.

The steps taken in post-training assistance are as follows:

Planning after training

The post-training plan is implemented in two coaching designs, namely: (1) Post-training coaching design defines the design elements of coaching materials, defines direct and indirect helpers (coordinators), and defines coaching steps such as preparation, implementation, and communication. (ii) Individual action plans taking into account resources, funds and objectives

Post-training implementation

Post-opening implementation is implemented directly in the form of a functional approach and an embedded approach carried out by the line supervisor.

The task of post-training assistants is to record and analyze the implementation of the training program model in the form of good practices laid out in the training. Moreover, the mentor prepares a report on the results of the help after the training to discuss it again in the forum as a reflection of the results of the help.

Post-training reflection

Conducted to find out the results of the guidance or the implementation of the components and indicators of the implemented training program. This activity is implemented by collecting all the participants in the workshop (workshop) for different experiences from what they have done in their schools, whether it is a good practice or a bad practice and the best solution is to implement the program model that is being trained. .

The main solution

Increasing the professionalism of teachers in SMK Negeri 4 Pandeglang through education and training is one solution to the many efforts that can be made in order to increase teacher competence towards improving the quality of education. Education and training are solutions in increasing the professionalism of teachers in SMK Negeri 4 Pandeglang. For this reason, education and training should be designed or designed based on the needs of matching the education and training program to the expected performance, in order to increase the professionalism of the teacher. To design a training program that suits training needs, we need several things in training design. There are several stages that have become our reference in training design, namely:

Conduct a training needs analysis that focuses on teacher performance, organization, climate and school environment.

Planning the implementation of education and training by taking into account the factors included in the scope of the education and training program such as: objectives, curricula, participants, facilities and infrastructure, costs, committees, providers, implementation of systematic training and training evaluation.

Implementation of training programs based on previously developed plans.

Evaluation of the implementation of the training, which takes place at the beginning of the implementation of the training, during the training process, and after the evaluation of the training.

A systems approach to organizing training designed in a systematic, continuous and sustainable manner will produce and improve knowledge and skills and shape the performance of human resources to be more professional in carrying out their duties.


From the results of this study, several conclusions can be drawn that the implementation of the training used is the suitability of the training with the tasks, training methods, trainers or trainers, training facilities, training materials and learning methods that are seen on the basis of knowledge, abilities, motivation, cooperation and responsibility.

The development of a professional training curriculum design model for teachers should fit the needs of teachers, namely:


The goal is formulated to improve the educational competence and scientific content, especially the subject of the field of study that the certificate participants study, so that they have a professional identity that they, the profession and the community that uses their services can be proud of.


The learning materials are designed to indicate the core competencies that the training participants should have and a needs assessment is conducted on the potential training participants.


Professional education and training for teachers applies learning-by-doing approaches or learning-by-activities that can provide meaningful learning experiences according to their area of expertise. The learning aids used are more of a realistic picture of the teaching/educational practices that can increase the commitment and responsibility of the participants in the training.


The assessment of learning outcomes is carried out with reference to Law No. 14 of 2005 regarding Teachers and Lecturers and Permendiknas No. 16 of 2007 regarding Standards of Academic Qualification and Teacher Competence. The results of the assessment should reach the competency standards of the graduates as follows: 1) Understanding the characteristics of students and the ability to design, implement and evaluate educational learning. 2) Having a solid, stable, mature, wise, reliable and noble personality. 3) mastering the sciences and critical studies and deepening the content in the context of the curricula; and 4) able to communicate and get along with students, colleagues and the community.

critical review (suggestion)

Teachers as implementers of the curriculum should continue to strive to further improve their competence professionally, so that the performance displayed meets the competency requirements of teachers in a comprehensive manner.

The implementation of vocational education and training for teachers must accommodate the expectations of teachers in the field according to the assessment of the need, especially with regard to the essence of the training material and the duration of the training time, so that the competence of the trainees shows improvement according to the goals to be achieved.

The training materials offered to the participants are adapted to the requirements and developments in surveying, mapping, science and technology.

The quality of teachers or educators, in terms of their knowledge, skills and attitudes, must be improved. Good teachers also influence the results of the training that takes place.

Training facilities such as tools and equipment needed in training should be properly equipped so as not to hinder the training process.

Post a Comment for "Teacher Education and Training for Professional Development"